Wednesday, July 6, 2022

Astronomers have unveiled the first image of a black hole at the galactic center space

On Thursday, an international team of astronomers released the first image of a supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy called Sagittarius A *.

Astronomers say that the centers of almost all galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, have these massive black holes, from which light and matter cannot escape, making it difficult to obtain images. When light is inhaled into the abyss along with extremely hot gas and dust, it bends due to gravity.

Created by a team of collaborative global scientists called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), the film was the first direct visual confirmation of the existence of an invisible object and was released three years after the first black hole film. Distant galaxy.

The image does not depict a completely dark black hole, but the glowing gas around the event is about four million times the mass of the Sun, in a bright, rotating halo.

“These unprecedented observations have greatly improved our understanding of what is going on in the middle of the Milky Way,” said Jeffrey Bower, an EHT project scientist at Academia Sinica in Taiwan.

Ball also said in a statement by France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) that these observations “provide new insights into how these massive black holes interact with their surroundings.”

The results were published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Announcing the new image, Ferial Ozel of the University of Arizona called the black hole the “delicate giant in the center of our galaxy.”

Sagittarius A *, abbreviated Sgr A *, pronounced “sadge-a-star”, named for its identity in the direction of Sagittarius.

Its existence is believed to date back to 1974, when an extraordinary radio source was discovered in the center of the Milky Way.

In the 1990s, astronomers mapped the orbits of bright stars in the center of the Milky Way, confirming that there was a supermassive compact object that led to the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Although it is believed that black hole existence is the only plausible explanation, the new images provide the first direct visual evidence.

Since it is 27,000 light years away from Earth, it resembles a donut shape on the Moon.

To capture an image of such a distant object would require the creation of a “ground-sized” virtual telescope called the EHT, comprising eight large radio observatories on Earth.

These include the Institute for Millimeter Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30-meter (98.4 ft) telescope in Spain, the most sensitive single antenna on the EHT network.

Similar to EHT Long Exposure Photography, many nights are spent watching SGR A * for hours.

The team used the same approach when the first film of Black Hole was released in 2019. It came from a galaxy 53 million light-years away, called M87 * because it is located in the Messier 87 galaxy.

The galactic black hole is about 27,000 light years away. The light year is 5.9 trillion miles (9.5 trillion kilometers).

Although Sagittarius is 2,000 times smaller than A * M87 *, the two black holes are surprisingly identical.

“At the edges of these black holes, they are very similar,” said Sera Markoff, co-chair of EHT’s Scientific Committee and a professor at the University of Amsterdam.

Both behaved as Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity had predicted, which assumed that gravity was caused by the curvature of space and time, and that cosmic objects would change this geometry.

Although Sagittarius A * is close to us, imagining it presents unique challenges.

The gas near the two black holes moves at the same speed close to the speed of light. But it took days and weeks to roll the big M87 * by completing the Sgr A * round in minutes.

Artist’s perception of a black hole with an acceleration disc, flat material structure and a hot gas jet orbiting the black hole [File: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Handout via Reuters]

Researchers need to develop sophisticated new tools to understand moving goals.

The film is the result of the work of more than 300 researchers in 80 countries over a period of five years, averaging several images that reveal the invisible monster hidden in the middle of the Milky Way.

Scientists are now interested in comparing the two black holes to test theories about how the gas around them behaves, a phenomenon that has not been properly understood to play a role in the formation of new stars and galaxies.

Einstein’s equations help physicists identify broken black holes, especially their infinitely smaller and denser centers (called singularities), to further their understanding of gravity and to develop more sophisticated theories.

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